Every discovery, innovation and breakthrough in the world of science and technology continues to shape the understanding of the universe and open horizons by revealing the unknown aspects of the universe.

The most important scientific developments and discoveries from January have been compiled.

The world’s oldest fossilized amniote skin, about 289 million years old, was found in a cave in the US state of Oklahoma.

The fossil was found to belong to a small, lizard-like animal called “Captorhinus aguti,” which predated dinosaurs by millions of years.

Water in plastic bottles contains thousands of nanoplastics that are dangerous to human health

Researchers at Columbia University in the US used a new method to identify particles that can be measured on a scale of a billionth of a meter and determined that there were around 240,000 nanoplastics in the water in a one-liter plastic bottle.

Researchers believe these plastics have quick effects because they enter the body through drinking water and said small plastics can affect the microbes that help digest food in the intestines.

It is also found that plastics can cause health risks such as increased mortality rates and birth defects.

Huge space discovery that “defies theory”

Scientists at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan) in England have discovered a huge ring-shaped structure in space that “challenges” some basic assumptions of cosmology.

While cosmologists theoretically limit the current size of the structures to 1.2 billion light-years, it has been found that the diameter of this structure, which scientists call the “Great Ring,” is 1.3 billion light-years and its circumference is about 4 billion light-years.

Researchers believe the newly discovered structure contradicts the 1.2 billion light-year theory.

Chatbots responded to “malicious” commands with “reverse engineering”

Researchers at Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore have “reverse-engineered” AI chatbots to respond to commands they wouldn’t normally respond to.

Researchers examined chatbots such as ChatGPT, Google Bard and Microsoft Bing Chat.

This method was first used to determine how chatbots detect malicious requests and how they defend against them. Using this information, the chatbots were then taught to automatically generate commands that could bypass other models’ defenses.

An antibiotic was found to fight drug-resistant bacteria

Researchers from Harvard University and the Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffmann-La Roche examined around 45,000 antibiotic molecules to find clinical treatments against drug-resistant bacteria that cause deadly infections in the human body.

The investigation showed that the antibiotic type “Zosurabalpin” largely neutralized the drug-resistant bacteria “Acinetobacter baumannii” in the laboratory environment.

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, which has a high level of resistance to the types of antibiotics currently used, causes serious and fatal infections in the lungs, urinary tract and blood.

Battery-free sensor developed

Engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US have developed a battery-free sensor that can generate its own energy for use in hard-to-reach areas.

When attached to a live electrical cable, the battery-free sensor can generate its own energy by collecting the energy in the magnetic field around the cable and provide information about power consumption on hard-to-reach parts of machines, such as the power cable of a motor.

The temperature sensor developed within the university does not require any special installation or maintenance.

It is believed that this design can be adapted to other energy sources such as vibration and daylight, as well as the magnetic field.

When the moon formed, there was more water in its crust than expected

Scientists in the United States, England, Canada and Sweden discovered that there was more water in the lunar crust 4 billion years ago as a result of research that changed general assumptions about the presence of water in the lunar crust.

As part of the research, the presence of apatite, the most common phosphate mineral, in the ancient crust of the moon was proven for the first time.

The finding, obtained from apatite, shows that there was much more water in its crust when the moon formed than scientists had thought, shedding new light on the years of its formation.

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